Great article about how musical education and experience contribute to brain development.
I experience this directly as a piano teacher.
First of all, I personally experience all of the advantages mentioned, in addition to many more, as a result of my own playing the piano and other instruments since I was 6 years old.
I have adult students who may have played only a few months as children. These adults have a well developed aptitude for the visual aspects- recognizing symbols at a glance, hand-eye coordination and left-right integration. Those adults who have had no experience with piano at all typically have a much difficult time with these factors.
And I get to give this to the children that I teach! Maybe I have the best job in the world…